To get your feet wet with pwntools, let’s first go through a few examples.
When writing exploits, pwntools generally follows the “kitchen sink” approach.
>>> from pwn import *
This imports a lot of functionality into the global namespace. You can now assemble, disassemble, pack, unpack, and many other things with a single function.
A full list of everything that is imported is available on from pwn import *.
You need to talk to the challenge binary in order to pwn it, right?
pwntools makes this stupid simple with its
This exposes a standard interface to talk to processes, sockets, serial ports,
and all manner of things, along with some nifty helpers for common tasks.
For example, remote connections via
>>> conn = remote('ftp.ubuntu.com',21) >>> conn.recvline() # doctest: +ELLIPSIS b'220 ...' >>> conn.send(b'USER anonymous\r\n') >>> conn.recvuntil(b' ', drop=True) b'331' >>> conn.recvline() b'Please specify the password.\r\n' >>> conn.close()
It’s also easy to spin up a listener
>>> l = listen() >>> r = remote('localhost', l.lport) >>> c = l.wait_for_connection() >>> r.send(b'hello') >>> c.recv() b'hello'
Interacting with processes is easy thanks to
>>> sh = process('/bin/sh') >>> sh.sendline(b'sleep 3; echo hello world;') >>> sh.recvline(timeout=1) b'' >>> sh.recvline(timeout=5) b'hello world\n' >>> sh.close()
Not only can you interact with processes programmatically, but you can actually interact with processes.
>>> sh.interactive() # doctest: +SKIP $ whoami user
There’s even an SSH module for when you’ve got to SSH into a box to perform
a local/setuid exploit with
pwnlib.tubes.ssh. You can quickly spawn
processes and grab the output, or spawn a process and interact with it like
>>> shell = ssh('bandit0', 'bandit.labs.overthewire.org', password='bandit0', port=2220) >>> shell['whoami'] b'bandit0' >>> shell.download_file('/etc/motd') >>> sh = shell.run('sh') >>> sh.sendline(b'sleep 3; echo hello world;') >>> sh.recvline(timeout=1) b'' >>> sh.recvline(timeout=5) b'hello world\n' >>> shell.close()
A common task for exploit-writing is converting between integers as Python
sees them, and their representation as a sequence of bytes.
Usually folks resort to the built-in
pwntools makes this easier with
pwnlib.util.packing. No more remembering
unpacking codes, and littering your code with helper routines.
>>> import struct >>> p32(0xdeadbeef) == struct.pack('I', 0xdeadbeef) True >>> leet = unhex('37130000') >>> u32(b'abcd') == struct.unpack('I', b'abcd') True
The packing/unpacking operations are defined for many common bit-widths.
>>> u8(b'A') == 0x41 True
Setting the Target Architecture and OS¶
The target architecture can generally be specified as an argument to the routine that requires it.
>>> asm('nop') b'\x90' >>> asm('nop', arch='arm') b'\x00\xf0 \xe3'
However, it can also be set once in the global
context. The operating system, word size, and endianness can also be set here.
>>> context.arch = 'i386' >>> context.os = 'linux' >>> context.endian = 'little' >>> context.word_size = 32
Additionally, you can use a shorthand to set all of the values at once.
>>> asm('nop') b'\x90' >>> context(arch='arm', os='linux', endian='big', word_size=32) >>> asm('nop') b'\xe3 \xf0\x00'
Setting Logging Verbosity¶
You can control the verbosity of the standard pwntools logging via
For example, setting
>>> context.log_level = 'debug'
Will cause all of the data sent and received by a
tube to be printed to the screen.
Assembly and Disassembly¶
Never again will you need to run some already-assembled pile of shellcode
from the internet! The
pwnlib.asm module is full of awesome.
>>> enhex(asm('mov eax, 0')) 'b800000000'
But if you do, it’s easy to suss out!
>>> print(disasm(unhex('6a0258cd80ebf9'))) 0: 6a 02 push 0x2 2: 58 pop eax 3: cd 80 int 0x80 5: eb f9 jmp 0x0
However, you shouldn’t even need to write your own shellcode most of the
time! pwntools comes with the
pwnlib.shellcraft module, which is
loaded with useful time-saving shellcodes.
Let’s say that we want to setreuid(getuid(), getuid()) followed by dup`ing file descriptor 4 to `stdin, stdout, and stderr, and then pop a shell!
>>> enhex(asm(shellcraft.setreuid() + shellcraft.dupsh(4))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS '6a3158cd80...'
Never write another hexdump, thanks to
Find offsets in your buffer that cause a crash, thanks to
>>> print(cyclic(20).decode()) aaaabaaacaaadaaaeaaa >>> # Assume EIP = 0x62616166 (b'faab' which is pack(0x62616166)) at crash time >>> print(cyclic_find(b'faab')) 120
Stop hard-coding things! Look them up at runtime with
>>> e = ELF('/bin/cat') >>> print(hex(e.address)) #doctest: +SKIP 0x400000 >>> print(hex(e.symbols['write'])) #doctest: +SKIP 0x401680 >>> print(hex(e.got['write'])) #doctest: +SKIP 0x60b070 >>> print(hex(e.plt['write'])) #doctest: +SKIP 0x401680
You can even patch and save the files.
>>> e = ELF('/bin/cat') >>> e.read(e.address, 4) b'\x7fELF' >>> e.asm(e.address, 'ret') >>> e.save('/tmp/quiet-cat') >>> disasm(open('/tmp/quiet-cat','rb').read(1)) ' 0: c3 ret'